Symmetric keys are at the bottom of the SQL Server encryption key hierarchy. A symmetric key is used to encrypt other symmetric keys or data. Because symmetric key encryption is so much faster than asymmetric encryption and does not suffer the same datalength limitations as SQL Server’s asymmetric encryption implementations, Microsoft recommends encrypting your data exclusively with symmetric keys.
While asymmetric encryption requires two keys (a public key/private key pair), symmetric encryption requires only a single key to both encrypt and decrypt your data. Symmetric encryption is performed using block cipher algorithms, which encrypt your data in blocks of a constant size, and stream cipher algorithms, which encrypt your data in a continuous stream. Block cipher algorithms have a set encryption key size and encryption block size.
You can calculate the size of the cipher text based on the length of the plain text using one of the following formulas:
• For 8byte block ciphers like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) family, use length of ciphertext = 8 * ( ( length of plaintext + 8 ) / 8 ) + 36.
• For 16byte block ciphers like the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), use length of ciphertext = 16 * ( ( length of plaintext + 16 ) / 16 ) + 44.
For either formula, add 20 bytes to the total length if you use an authenticator.
SQL Server provides the following statements to manage symmetric keys:
• CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY: Creates a symmetric key to be used for encryption. Symmetric keys can be encrypted by certificates, asymmetric keys, passwords, or even other symmetric keys.
• ALTER SYMMETRIC KEY: Allows you to change the method of securing your symmetric keys.
• DROP SYMMETRIC KEY: Drops a symmetric key from the database. Symmetric keys cannot be dropped while they are open.
• OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY: Opens and decrypts a symmetric key for use.
• CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY: Closes a symmetric key that was previously opened.
• CLOSE ALL SYMMETRIC KEYS: Closes all symmetric keys currently open in the current session.
SQL Server does not provide backup or restore statements for symmetric keys. Because symmetric keys are stored in the current database, they are backed up during the normal database backup process. You can also recreate a symmetric key from scratch with the CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY statement. In order to recreate a symmetric key from scratch, you must supply a KEY_SOURCE and IDENTITY_VALUE. The KEY_SOURCE is a value SQL Server hashes and performs bitwise manipulations on to generate a symmetric encryption key. If not specified, SQL Server randomly generates a KEY_SOURCE. The IDENTITY_VALUE is a value SQL Server uses to generate a key GUID. Copies of the key GUID are stored with the data the key is used to encrypt. In order to recreate a symmetric key, you must supply the same KEY_SOURCE and IDENTITY_VALUE originally used to create the key. SQL Server guarantees that supplying duplicate IDENTITY_VALUE and KEY_SOURCE values will generate an identical key.
The following example creates a symmetric key and then drops it:
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymTest
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymTest;
Of course, creating a symmetric key is not very useful if you can’t use it to encrypt things. And as we mentioned, symmetric keys in SQL Server can be used to protect other symmetric keys or data. To protect a symmetric key with another symmetric key, use the ENCRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY clause of the CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY statement. To encrypt and decrypt data, use the EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey functions. The following example creates a symmetric key, which is used to encrypt another symmetric key, which is used in turn by EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey to encrypt and decrypt some data.
USE AdventureWorks;
GO
 Create a symmetric key to encrypt a symmetric key
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
 Open the keyencrypting key
OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey
DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
 Create a symmetric key to encrypt data
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymData
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Open the dataencrypting key
OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY SymData
DECRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Initialize the plain text
DECLARE @plain_text NVARCHAR(512);
SET @plain_text = N'"Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a ' +
N'little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety."  Ben Franklin'
PRINT @plain_text;
 Encrypt the data
DECLARE @cipher_text VARBINARY(1024);
SET @cipher_text = EncryptByKey(Key_GUID(N'SymData'), @plain_text);
PRINT @cipher_text;
 Decrypt the data
SET @plain_text = CAST(DecryptByKey(@cipher_text) AS NVARCHAR(512));
PRINT @plain_text;
 Close the dataencrypting key
CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY SymData;
 Close the keyencrypting key
CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Drop the symmetric keys
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymData;
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
The EncryptByKey function requires the key GUID of the symmetric key to encrypt your data. The symmetric key GUID can be retrieved by passing the name of the key to the Key_GUID function. The plain_text passed into the function is char, varchar, nchar, nvarchar, binary, or varbinary data. The return value of EncryptByKey is varbinary(8000). Block mode ciphers on SQL Server, like Triple DES and AES, automatically use an encryption mode known as Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode and random initialization vectors (IVs) to further obfuscate your encrypted data. In addition, the EncryptByKey function also accepts an optional authenticator value to help defeat whole value substitutions of your data. The authenticator value passed in is a sysname, which is synonymous with nvarchar(128). When an authenticator value is provided, it is encrypted together with the plain text to even further obfuscate your data. The authenticator value can be used to “tie” your encrypted data to a specific row. If you do use an authenticator, the add_authenticator parameter to EncryptByKey must be set to 1.
The DecryptByKey function accepts your encrypted data as a varbinary(8000), and returns the decrypted plain text as a varbinary(8000). If your original data was varchar or nvarchar, then you will need to CAST or CONVERT the result back to its original datatype. If you used an authenticator value when you encrypted the plain text, you must supply the same authenticator value to decrypt your cipher text. Note that you don’t need to supply the Key_GUID when you call DecryptByKey. This is because SQL Server stores the key GUID with the encrypted data during the encryption process.
When you use the EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey functions, and the symmetric key you are using to encrypt or decrypt data is protected by another key, you must explicitly open the symmetric key with the OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY statement. SQL Server provides the following additional functions that automatically open and decrypt your symmetric key before decrypting your data:
• DecryptByKeyAutoAsymKey: Decrypts your data with a symmetric key that is protected by an asymmetric key. This function automatically opens and decrypts your symmetric key with its associated asymmetric key.
• DecryptByKeyAutoCert: Decrypts your data using a symmetric key that is protected by a certificate. This function automatically opens and decrypts your symmetric key with its associated certificate.
Source of Information : Apress Accelerated SQL Server 2008
While asymmetric encryption requires two keys (a public key/private key pair), symmetric encryption requires only a single key to both encrypt and decrypt your data. Symmetric encryption is performed using block cipher algorithms, which encrypt your data in blocks of a constant size, and stream cipher algorithms, which encrypt your data in a continuous stream. Block cipher algorithms have a set encryption key size and encryption block size.
You can calculate the size of the cipher text based on the length of the plain text using one of the following formulas:
• For 8byte block ciphers like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) family, use length of ciphertext = 8 * ( ( length of plaintext + 8 ) / 8 ) + 36.
• For 16byte block ciphers like the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), use length of ciphertext = 16 * ( ( length of plaintext + 16 ) / 16 ) + 44.
For either formula, add 20 bytes to the total length if you use an authenticator.
SQL Server provides the following statements to manage symmetric keys:
• CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY: Creates a symmetric key to be used for encryption. Symmetric keys can be encrypted by certificates, asymmetric keys, passwords, or even other symmetric keys.
• ALTER SYMMETRIC KEY: Allows you to change the method of securing your symmetric keys.
• DROP SYMMETRIC KEY: Drops a symmetric key from the database. Symmetric keys cannot be dropped while they are open.
• OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY: Opens and decrypts a symmetric key for use.
• CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY: Closes a symmetric key that was previously opened.
• CLOSE ALL SYMMETRIC KEYS: Closes all symmetric keys currently open in the current session.
SQL Server does not provide backup or restore statements for symmetric keys. Because symmetric keys are stored in the current database, they are backed up during the normal database backup process. You can also recreate a symmetric key from scratch with the CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY statement. In order to recreate a symmetric key from scratch, you must supply a KEY_SOURCE and IDENTITY_VALUE. The KEY_SOURCE is a value SQL Server hashes and performs bitwise manipulations on to generate a symmetric encryption key. If not specified, SQL Server randomly generates a KEY_SOURCE. The IDENTITY_VALUE is a value SQL Server uses to generate a key GUID. Copies of the key GUID are stored with the data the key is used to encrypt. In order to recreate a symmetric key, you must supply the same KEY_SOURCE and IDENTITY_VALUE originally used to create the key. SQL Server guarantees that supplying duplicate IDENTITY_VALUE and KEY_SOURCE values will generate an identical key.
The following example creates a symmetric key and then drops it:
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymTest
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymTest;
Of course, creating a symmetric key is not very useful if you can’t use it to encrypt things. And as we mentioned, symmetric keys in SQL Server can be used to protect other symmetric keys or data. To protect a symmetric key with another symmetric key, use the ENCRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY clause of the CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY statement. To encrypt and decrypt data, use the EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey functions. The following example creates a symmetric key, which is used to encrypt another symmetric key, which is used in turn by EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey to encrypt and decrypt some data.
USE AdventureWorks;
GO
 Create a symmetric key to encrypt a symmetric key
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
 Open the keyencrypting key
OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey
DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '$#ad%61*(;dsPSlk';
 Create a symmetric key to encrypt data
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY SymData
WITH ALGORITHM = Triple_DES
ENCRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Open the dataencrypting key
OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY SymData
DECRYPTION BY SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Initialize the plain text
DECLARE @plain_text NVARCHAR(512);
SET @plain_text = N'"Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a ' +
N'little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety."  Ben Franklin'
PRINT @plain_text;
 Encrypt the data
DECLARE @cipher_text VARBINARY(1024);
SET @cipher_text = EncryptByKey(Key_GUID(N'SymData'), @plain_text);
PRINT @cipher_text;
 Decrypt the data
SET @plain_text = CAST(DecryptByKey(@cipher_text) AS NVARCHAR(512));
PRINT @plain_text;
 Close the dataencrypting key
CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY SymData;
 Close the keyencrypting key
CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
 Drop the symmetric keys
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymData;
DROP SYMMETRIC KEY SymKey;
The EncryptByKey function requires the key GUID of the symmetric key to encrypt your data. The symmetric key GUID can be retrieved by passing the name of the key to the Key_GUID function. The plain_text passed into the function is char, varchar, nchar, nvarchar, binary, or varbinary data. The return value of EncryptByKey is varbinary(8000). Block mode ciphers on SQL Server, like Triple DES and AES, automatically use an encryption mode known as Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode and random initialization vectors (IVs) to further obfuscate your encrypted data. In addition, the EncryptByKey function also accepts an optional authenticator value to help defeat whole value substitutions of your data. The authenticator value passed in is a sysname, which is synonymous with nvarchar(128). When an authenticator value is provided, it is encrypted together with the plain text to even further obfuscate your data. The authenticator value can be used to “tie” your encrypted data to a specific row. If you do use an authenticator, the add_authenticator parameter to EncryptByKey must be set to 1.
The DecryptByKey function accepts your encrypted data as a varbinary(8000), and returns the decrypted plain text as a varbinary(8000). If your original data was varchar or nvarchar, then you will need to CAST or CONVERT the result back to its original datatype. If you used an authenticator value when you encrypted the plain text, you must supply the same authenticator value to decrypt your cipher text. Note that you don’t need to supply the Key_GUID when you call DecryptByKey. This is because SQL Server stores the key GUID with the encrypted data during the encryption process.
When you use the EncryptByKey and DecryptByKey functions, and the symmetric key you are using to encrypt or decrypt data is protected by another key, you must explicitly open the symmetric key with the OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY statement. SQL Server provides the following additional functions that automatically open and decrypt your symmetric key before decrypting your data:
• DecryptByKeyAutoAsymKey: Decrypts your data with a symmetric key that is protected by an asymmetric key. This function automatically opens and decrypts your symmetric key with its associated asymmetric key.
• DecryptByKeyAutoCert: Decrypts your data using a symmetric key that is protected by a certificate. This function automatically opens and decrypts your symmetric key with its associated certificate.
Source of Information : Apress Accelerated SQL Server 2008

Sankar
October 25, 2019 at 2:31 PM
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